COP26, a UN Summit on Climate Change, begins in Glasgow
World leaders are gathering today in the Scottish city of Glasgow to try to accelerate efforts to tackle climate change, writes the Associated Press.
So far, the efforts of the international community have been fruitless, the Earth's climate is getting warmer and the meteorological phenomena are becoming more extreme, scientists and government officials warn.
Representatives of 120 countries will take part in the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Discussions will continue until November 12. During the same period, the 16th conference of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol and the third meeting of the participants in the Paris Agreement will take place, TASS reports.
According to observations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, conducted since 1850, the Earth's climate has undergone drastic changes over the past 100 years. Among the main prerequisites for this is the influence of man and his activities on the atmosphere. Deforestation and the use of fuels such as oil, coal and gas increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which is one of the causes of global warming.
A number of documents have been adopted to consolidate efforts to reduce climate impact and related risks.
The UN Framework Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are of key importance.
The Convention, which entered into force in 1994, was the first international instrument to strengthen the principle of cooperation to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. Its ultimate goal is "to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climate system." Today, the convention unites 196 countries and the EU.
The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005 as an addendum to the Convention. Its goal was to reduce emissions of a number of industrial gases by 5.2 percent from 2008 to 2012 compared to 1990 levels. It was joined by 191 countries and the EU. This was the first global environmental agreement based on market-based regulatory mechanisms - emission quotas were set for each country with the right to sell them if it did not use them.
The Paris Climate Agreement, which replaced the Kyoto Protocol at the end of 2020, stated that the goal was to prevent the global average annual temperature from exceeding the pre-industrial level by more than 2 degrees Celsius by 2100, and to take measures to stay within 1.5 degrees. According to the UN, the average temperature is currently 1.1 degrees above 1850-1900.
According to the document, all countries, regardless of their level of economic development, are responsible for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The participating countries - currently 191 countries and the EU, independently determine their policy in this area.
During the Glasgow conference, the countries are expected to agree on a program of financial assistance to developing countries for the introduction of renewable energy sources and compensation for climate change, as well as to agree on economic mechanisms, including rules for international trade in certificates entitling to individual countries to sell the surplus of their national emission allowances.
US climate activists yesterday threw smoke in Glasgow in order to attract the attention of heads of state and government arriving for the UN forum, AFP reported.
Numerous demonstrations by climate activists are expected to take place over the next two weeks in George Square, Glasgow's central square and a traditional point of expression for civil discontent. Their number could reach 100,000 during major events in the conference program, scheduled for November 5, according to organizers.
On the eve of the forum, the city was flooded with heavy rains and many streets in the center were flooded. The daily life of the locals is further hampered by the established wide security perimeter, and many are worried that the event could lead to a new jump in coronavirus cases.
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