Three Scientists Share Nobel Prize in Physics

Society | October 5, 2021, Tuesday // 18:23
Bulgaria: Three Scientists Share Nobel Prize in Physics amazingjews.org

 

The 2021 Nobel Prize for physics has been shared between scientists working on models to predict global warming and the interplay of planetary systems.

One half of the prize is split between Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann for their work in the 'physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming.'

The other half of the prize has gone to Giorgio Parisi for the 'discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.' 

This is one of the most prestigious prizes in science, and in the past honoured discoveries about fundamental forces of nature and cosmic phenomena.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the latest recipient on Tuesday from its stunning Session Hall in Stockholm at 10:45 BST (05:45 EDT).

It is common for several scientists who work in related fields to share the prize, which includes £841,000 ($1.14 million) and a gold medal.

 

WHAT DID THEY DISCOVER? 

Syukuro Manabe demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface. 

In the 1960s, he led development of physical models of the Earth’s climate. 

His work laid the foundation for the development of climate models. 

Klaus Hasselmann created a model linking weather and climate, answering the question of why climate models can be reliable despite weather being changeable and chaotic.  

His methods have been used to prove that the increased temperature in the atmosphere is due to human emissions of carbon dioxide. 

Giorgio Parisi discovered hidden patterns in disordered complex materials. 

His discoveries are among the most important contributions to the theory of complex systems. 

They make it possible to understand and describe many different and apparently entirely random materials and phenomena.

Not only in physics but also in other, very different areas, such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning.

The committee made the award to the three scientists as their studies shared a common theme of 'chaotic and apparently random phenomena'.   

Complex systems are characterised by randomness and disorder, and because of this are difficult to understand and predict - especially long-term. 

Syukuro Manabe demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface of the Earth. 

In the 1960s, he led the development of physical models of the Earth's climate and was the first person to explore the interaction between radiation balance and the vertical transport of air masses. 

His work laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.

About ten years later, Klaus Hasselmann created a model that links together weather and climate, thus answering the question of why climate models can be reliable despite weather being changeable and chaotic. 

He also developed methods for identifying specific signals, fingerprints, that both natural phenomena and human activities imprint in he climate. 

His methods have been used to prove that the increased temperature in the atmosphere is due to human emissions of carbon dioxide.

Around 1980, Giorgio Parisi discovered hidden patterns in disordered complex materials. His discoveries are among the most important contributions to the theory of complex systems. 

They make it possible to understand and describe many different and apparently entirely random materials and phenomena, not only in physics but also in other, very different areas, such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning. 

After the announcement, Parisi said that 'it's very urgent that we take very strong decisions and move at a very strong pace' in tackling climate change. 

'It's clear for future generations that we have to act now,' he added.

Last year, the prize went to American Andrea Ghez, Roger Penrose of Britain and Reinhard Genzel of Germany for their research into black holes.          

Syukuro Manabe will share a quarter of the prize in 2021, after he demonstrated how increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to increased temperatures at the surface of the Earth/https: msn.com

 

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Tags: nobel week, Stockholm, Prize in physics, three scientists
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