The vessel, Marine Express, was carrying more than 13,000 tons of gasoline and went missing in the Gulf of Guinea, according to a statement from the Anglo Eastern, the ship's managing company.
It said it lost contact with the vessel Thursday.
In a tweet, a spokesman for India's Foreign Ministry, Raveesh Kumar, said a search for the ship is underway.
"Our Mission in Abuja (Nigeria) is in touch with the authorities in Benin and Nigeria for their help in locating the ship and is constantly monitoring the situation," he said.
Anglo-Eastern said it was in contact with the families of the missing sailors. In a recent report, the International Maritime Bureau, a nonprofit devoted to fighting crime at sea, said maritime piracy and armed robbery reached a 22-year-low last year, but danger persists in the Gulf of Guinea. "Although the number of attacks is down this year  in comparison with last year, the Gulf of Guinea and the waters around Nigeria remain a threat to seafarers," said Pottengal Mukundan, director of the bureau. The Gulf of Guinea leads the world in the number and severity of incidences of piracy, according to the nonprofit.